Date 23 12 月, 2020
Project Type 2020

DATE

2020-12-26~2021-02-20

ARTIST

TYPE

Exhibition

華麗的冒險-日本戰後藝術的挑戰與實驗 

文|徐孝貴

 

「我們所走的路,將會引向一處國際共通之地,讓東西方藝術互相影響,這是藝術史的自然進程。」-吉原治良,摘自1958年《具體派領袖吉原治良之聲明》

二戰後美軍進駐了被盟軍轟炸成一片焦土的東京,為戰敗的日本進行維安保護的接管任務,這是大和民族前所未有的恥辱,日本國付出最慘痛的社會代價;卻也因此注入了最強大的反省力,人民一夕之間覺醒,迅速地自我整備、以便步上復原之路。

 

感知力敏銳的藝術家們,受到這空前的創痛後,激發出驚人的反省與創新力,積極為建立日本新文化價值與自我認同而努力,且國際交流的門戶也從此被啟動。倡導前衛藝術的流派紛紛成立-1948年岡本太郎(Okamoto Taro)組成的「夜之社」後,瀧口修造(Takiguchi Shuzo)的「實驗工房」,村上三郎(Saburo Murakami)與白髮一雄(Kazuo Shiraga)組成的「零學社」相繼成立。出生於大阪的藝術家吉原治良(Yoshihara Jiro, 1905-1972),受藤田嗣治(Tsuguharu Foujita)的影響與啟發,於1954年登高一呼,吸引了一群有志一同的年輕藝術家(包括零學社的成員們)「具體派(Gutai)」正式成立,並於隔年發表了《具體派宣言》,掀起了日本戰後前衛藝術的第一波浪潮。

 

吉原治良曾說:「我們最重要的事,是要令當代藝術成為今天活在艱苦現實中的人最自由的場域,從而促成人類的進步。」-〈出版緣起〉,《具體》第一期,19551月,第33頁。

具體派在導師吉原治良強而有力的領導下,以創新不模仿他人,抛棄舊觀念、挑戰嶄新的創作形式,拓展新的領域,讓材料自己說話為主旨。最初的核心成員包括:白髮一雄、元永定正(Sadamasa Motonaga)、嶋本昭三(Shozo Shimamoto)、田中敦子(Atsuko Tanaka)、上前智佑(Chiyu Uemae)、鷲見康夫(Yasuo Sumi)及浮田要三(Yozo Ukita)等共15人,1960年代之後又陸續加入了名坂有子(Yuko Nasaka)、松谷武判(Takesada Mastutani)、向井修二(Shuji Mukai)及前川強(Shuyoshi Maekawa)等,透過舉辦展覽發表成員們獨特且原創的作品,引起了廣大的迴響。

 

1957年,法國策展人米歇爾•達比耶(Michel Tapié)在留法藝術家今井俊滿(Toshimitsu Imai)的推薦下,來到日本與吉原治良進行交流;在達比耶的積極推動下,具體派與同時期在歐洲盛行的非定形繪畫(Art Informal)進行聯展,並於1958年在紐約Martha Jackson畫廊舉行首次海外展覽,之後也受邀至歐洲義大利等國展覽,頗受國際矚目。

 

戰後日本藝術由戰敗的創傷,經歷長時期的發展、轉型,於1970年的大阪萬國博覽會達到一個巔峰。1972年三月,具體派於精神導師吉原治良逝世後的一個月,宣布解散,但具體派的藝術家們仍然持續創作不輟,並影響著年輕一輩的創作者。在此之後,日本當代藝術的崛起,已受歐美為主導的藝術史學者和評論家普遍的關注與認同,日本藝術家也成為最早受西方藝術市場關注的亞洲藝術家。《日本戰後藝術的華麗冒險》The Dazzling Adventures in Japanese Postwar Arts,以具體派的核心成員及後物派的代表人物川俣正(Tadashi Kawamata)的作品為主,見證這批成長於二戰後,從艱難困境中,以無畏的精神開創出道路的藝術家們,展現語彙獨特、風格多元的創作面貌,寫下一頁璀璨又亮眼的歷史。

 


Dazzling Adventures – The Challenges and Experimentation of Japanese Postwar Arts

 By Rose H.K. Hsu

 

The road we take will lead us to an internationally universal place, where Oriental and Western art influence each other. This is the natural progression of art history.

-Yoshihara Jiro (quoted from Manifesto of Gutai Group Leader Yoshihara Jiro, 1958)

 

At the conclusion of World War Two, the American military occupied Tokyo, a city turned into a smoldering heap following devastating firebombing. To a defeated Japan, the Allied peacekeeping mission was an unprecedented insult to the Japanese people, for which Japan paid a bitter social price. However, it similarly infused the people with great power of self-examination, and the people seemed to wake up overnight, quickly picking up the pieces and marching down the road to recovery.

 

For keenly perceptive artists, this unprecedented trauma stimulated astonishing powers of reflection and creativity, motivating them to actively work to establish new Japanese cultural values and self-identity. Moreover, this opened the door to international exchange. Avant garde artistic factions sprung up in succession, beginning with the Association of the Night formed by Okamoto Taro in 1948, and followed by Takiguchi Shuzo’s Experimental Workshop, and Saburo Murakami and Kazuo Shiraga’s Zerology Association. Responding to the call of artist Yoshihara Jiro (1905-72), a native of Osaka influenced and inspired by Tsuguharu Foujita, a group of likeminded young artists (including members of the Zerology Association) formed the Gutai group. The following year they issued the Gutai Manifesto, setting off the first wave of avant garde art in post-war Japan.

 

Yoshihara Jiro once stated: “The most important thing for us is turn contemporary art into the freest realm for people living in today’s grueling reality, and further bring about the progress of humanity.” Behind the Publication, Gutai magazine, Issue No. 1, January 1955, p. 33.

 

Under the strong leadership of mentor Yoshihara Jiro, the Gutai group forged new realms following its credo of not imitating others, casting off old concepts, and challenging brand new creative forms, with letting material speak for itself as its guiding principle. The early core membership of 15 included Kazuo Shiraga, Sadamasa Motonaga, Shozo Shimamoto, Atsuko Tanaka, Chiyu Uemae, Yasuo Sumi, and Yozo Ukita, which was joined during the 1960s by Yuko Nasaka, Takesada Mastutani, Shuji Mukai, and Shuyoshi Maekawa. Featuring members’ distinctive and innovative works at exhibitions, the group was widely embraced and acclaimed.

 

In 1957, at the introduction of expatriate artist Oshimitsu Imai, French curator Michel Tapié visited Japan to engage in exchange with Jiro. Under Tapié’s strong advocacy, the Gutai group held a joint exhibition with Art Informal, a contemporaneous group thriving in Europe. In 1958 they held their first overseas exhibition at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York City, followed by invitations for an exhibition in Italy, which attracted international notice.

 

Art in post-war Japan emerged from the trauma of war to enter a long period of development and transformation, which reached an apex at the 1970 Osaka Expo. In March 1972, one month after the death of guiding force Yoshihara Jiro, the Gutai group announced its dissolution. However, the group’s former members continued to create unabated, further influencing the younger generation of artists. From this point on, the rise of Japanese contemporary art gained the notice and approval of art history scholars and critics – expanding their focus beyond mostly Europe and America – and Japanese artists became the first Asian artists to attract the attention of the Western art market. The Dazzling Adventures in Japanese Postwar Arts, featuring the works of the core Gutai group members and Tadashi Kawamata – the leading figure of the Post-Mono-ha movement – bears witness to the intrepid artists who grew up in the difficult post-war period and blazed their own path, exhibiting a multifaceted creative body with a distinctive voice to write a brilliant, gleaming page of history.

 

 

 展出藝術家  Featured Artists

上前智佑 Chiyu Uemae  1920-2018

元永定正 Sadamasa Motonaga  1922-2011

白髮一雄 Kazuo Shiraga  1924-2008

浮田要三 Yozo Ukita  1924-2013

鷲見康夫 Yasuo Sumi  1925-2015

山崎鶴子 Tsuruko Yanazaki  1925-2019

今井俊滿 Toshimitsu Imai  1928-2002

嶋本昭三 Shozo Shimamoto  1928-2013

田中敦子 Atsuko Tanaka  1932-2005

松谷武判 Takesada Mastutani  1937~

名坂有子 Yuko Nasaka  1938~

菅木志雄 Suga Kishio  1944~

川俣正 Tadashi Kawamata  1953~

Toshimitsu-IMAI_Work_1980_Oil-on-canvas_130.3x162.1cm.jpg